Identification with work is the idea that work can inherently be enjoyable and a source of fulfillment. My research agenda examines when and why this identification with work matters and investigates its implications for workers, organizations and occupations. I develop this agenda through three related research streams that examine how identification with work affects (1) individual worker productivity and pricing (three papers), (2) gender inequality in organizations (four papers), and (3) the design of occupational institutions (three papers). All of this research focuses on economically disadvantaged workers in India, who are expected to be primarily driven by monetary considerations in their decision-making. Investigating identification with work among this group of workers thus offers a strong test for the idea that identification could play an important role in understanding the nature of work, while also informing important policy debates in this context. My research is also unified by my “full-cycle” methodological approach that combines inductive qualitative methods (ethnography and interviews) and deductive experimental methods (including field, lab-in-the-field and natural experiments). The qualitative methods help to develop hypotheses linking novel mechanisms for identification with work to workplace outcomes, while the quantitative methods help to causally test these hypotheses using experimental designs.