Jennifer Aaker

Coulter Family Faculty Fellow 2020–2021
Academic Area: 

Research Interests

  • Time, Money, and Happiness
  • The Power of Story
  • Global Brand Building
  • Emotions, Goals, and Health
  • The Psychology of Giving


Dr. Jennifer Aaker is the General Atlantic Professor at Stanford Graduate School of Business and the Coulter Family Faculty Fellow at Stanford Graduate School of Business (2020–21). A behavioral scientist and author, Dr. Aaker is a leading expert on how meaning and purpose shape the choices individuals make, how money and time can be used in ways that cultivate long-lasting happiness, and how technologies including Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Mixed Reality (XR) are redefining human interaction. She is widely published in leading scientific journals and her work has been featured in The Economist, The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post, BusinessWeek, Forbes, NPR, CBS MoneyWatch, Inc., and Science.

Dr. Aaker is the coauthor of several books including the award-winning book, The Dragonfly Effect, which has been translated into over 10 languages, as well as Power of Story, which drew on behavioral science to provide a hands-on tool putting The Dragonfly Effect model to work. She worked with a group of Stanford students to get over 100,000 people into the bone marrow registry, a target that they achieved in under one year. Her new book, Humor, Seriously, is focused on why humor is a window into our humanity, and how it can be used as a secret weapon in business and life (with Naomi Bagdonas, Penguin, 2020).

At Stanford, she teaches classes including Designing AI to Cultivate Human Well-Being, Rethinking Purpose, A New Type of Leader, VR/AR: Scaling Empathy in an Immersive World, Power of Story, and Humor: Serious Business. She is the recipient of the Distinguished Scientific Achievement Award, Stanford Distinguished Teaching Award, Citibank Best Teacher Award, George Robbins Best Teacher Award, Robert Jaedicke Silver Apple Award, and the MBA Professor of the Year Award.

Dr. Aaker is a highly sought-after speaker on the application of behavioral science to help companies and leaders positively impact human well-being through technology, business practices, story, and purpose-driven leadership. Dr. Aaker serves as a board member and advisor helping companies and leadership teams with digital transformation, incorporating human well-being into corporate strategy to drive business performance, global brand building and embracing a new leadership type for the innovation economy - one anchored on purpose, fueled by levity.

Before joining Stanford University, Aaker was a professor at the UCLA Anderson School of Management where she conducted the research that resulted in her seminal paper, Dimensions of Brand Personality. She completed her PhD degrees at Stanford University, and holds a BA from UC Berkeley. More personally, she is an early adopter of the trailblazing “family sabbatical” practice, by which she “moves” her family to far-flung locations in an effort to teach her kids to be citizens of the world. They have yet to express enthusiasm about this practice but almost certainly will before she dies. In terms of personal accomplishments, she counts winning a dance-off in the early 1980s among her most impressive feats; and her abbreviated cooking skills have earned her family Doordash Platinum status.

Academic Degrees

  • PhD in Marketing, PhD Minor in Psychology, Stanford Graduate School of Business, 1995
  • BA in Psychology, University of California, Berkeley, 1989

Academic Appointments

  • The General Atlantic Professor, Stanford GSB, 2005-present
  • Full Professor, Stanford GSB, 2004-2005
  • Associate Professor, Stanford GSB, 2001-2004
  • Assistant Professor, Stanford GSB, 1999-2001
  • Visiting Assistant Professor, Columbia Graduate School of Business, Fall 1998
  • Assistant Professor, Anderson Graduate School of Management, UCLA, 1995-1999

Awards and Honors

  • MBA Professor of the Year, Poets & Quants, 2018-2019
  • Distinguished Scientific Achievement Award, Society for Consumer Psychology, 2014
  • The Nautilus Literary Award, The Dragonfly Effect, 2011
  • A. Michael Spence Faculty Scholar, Stanford University, GSB, 2006
  • Early Career Award for Outstanding Research, Society of Consumer Psychology, 2003
  • Distinguished Teaching Award, MBA, Stanford University, GSB, 2000


Journal Articles

Szu-chi Huang, Jennifer Aaker. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. October 2019, Vol. 117, Issue 4, Pages 697-720.
Kathleen D. Vohs, Jennifer Aaker, Rhia Catapano. Current Opinion in Psychology. April 2019, Vol. 26, Pages 11-14.
Cassie Mogilner, Hal E. Hershfield, Jennifer Aaker. Consumer Psychology Review. January 2018, Vol. 1, Issue 1, Pages 41-53.
Donnel A. Briley, Melanie Rudd, Jennifer Aaker. Journal of Consumer Research. December 1, 2017, Vol. 44, Issue 4, Pages 895-915.
David Aaker, Jennifer Aaker. California Management Review. May 4, 2016, Vol. 58, Issue 3, Pages 49-65.
Jennifer Aaker, Jordan Etkin, Ioannis Evangelidis. Journal of Marketing Research. June 2015, Vol. 52, Issue 3, Pages 394-406.
Emily N. Garbinsky, Anne-Kathryn Klesse, Jennifer Aaker. Journal of Consumer Research. October 1, 2014, Vol. 41, Issue 3, Pages 610-623.
Melanie Rudd, Jennifer Aaker, Michael I. Norton. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. September 2014, Vol. 54, Pages 11-24.
Jennifer Aaker. Journal Consumer Research. 2014.
Roy F. Baumeister, Kathleen D. Vohs, Jennifer Aaker, Emily N. Garbinsky. Journal of Positive Psychology. 2013, Vol. 8, Issue 6, Pages 505-516.
Melanie Rudd, Kathleen D. Vohs, Jennifer Aaker. Psychological Science. 2012, Vol. 23, Issue 10, Pages 1130-1136.
Jennifer Aaker, Emily N. Garbinsky, Kathleen D. Vohs. Journal of Consumer Psychology. 2012, Vol. 22, Issue 2, Pages 191–194.
Cassie Mogilner, Jennifer Aaker, Sepandar D. Kamvar. Journal of Consumer Research. 2012, Vol. 39, Issue 2, Pages 429-443.
Jennifer Aaker, Melanie Rudd, Cassie Mogilner. Journal of Consumer Psychology. 2011, Vol. 21, Issue 2, Pages 126–130.
Cassie Mogilner, Sepandar D. Kamvar, Jennifer Aaker. Social Psychological and Personality Science. 2011, Vol. 2, Issue 4, Pages 395–402.
Jennifer Aaker, Kathleen D. Vohs, Cassie Mogilner. Journal of Consumer Research. 2010, Vol. 37, Issue 2, Pages 224-237.
Cassie Mogilner, Jennifer Aaker. Journal of Consumer Research. 2009, Vol. 36, Issue 2, Pages 277-291.
Jennifer Aaker, Satoshi Akutsu. Journal of Consumer Psychology. 2009, Vol. 19, Issue 3, Pages 267–270.
Jennifer Aaker, Aimee Drolet, Dale Griffin. Journal of Consumer Research. 2008, Vol. 35, Issue 2, Pages 268-278.
Wendy Liu, Jennifer Aaker. Journal of Consumer Research. 2008, Vol. 35, Issue 3, Pages 543-557.
Cassie Mogilner, Jennifer Aaker, Ginger L. Pennington. Journal of Consumer Research. 2008, Vol. 34, Issue 5, Pages 670-681.
Wendy Liu, Jennifer Aaker. Organizational Behavior & Human Decision Processes. 2007, Vol. 102, Issue 2, Pages 212-225.
Nidhi Agrawal, Geeta Menon, Jennifer Aaker. Journal of Marketing Research. 2007, Vol. 44, Pages 100-113.
Donnel A. Briley, Jennifer Aaker. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing. 2006, Vol. 25, Issue 1, Pages 53-66.
Jennifer Aaker. Journal of Consumer Psychology. 2006, Vol. 16, Issue 4, Pages 343–347.
Jennifer Aaker, Angela Y. Lee. Journal of Marketing Research. 2006, Vol. 43, Issue 1, Pages 15-19.
Donnel A. Briley, Jennifer Aaker. Journal of Marketing Research. 2006, Vol. 43, Issue 3, Pages 395-408.
Gita Venkataramani Johar, Jaideep Sengupta, Jennifer Aaker. Journal of Marketing Research. 2005, Vol. 42, Issue 4, Pages 458-469.
Angela Y Lee, Jennifer Aaker. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 2004, Vol. 86, Issue 2, Pages 205-218.
Jennifer Aaker, Susan Fournier, S. Adam Brasel. Journal of Consumer Research. 2004, Vol. 31, Issue 1, Pages 1-16.
Patty Williams, Jennifer Aaker. Journal of Consumer Research. March 2002, Vol. 28.
Aimee Drolet, Jennifer Aaker. Journal of Consumer Psychology. 2002, Vol. 12, Issue 1, Pages 59-68.
Jennifer Aaker, Angela Y. Lee. Journal of Consumer Research. June 2001, Vol. 28.
Jennifer Aaker, Veronica Benet-Martinez, Jordi Garolera. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology. 2001, Vol. 81, Issue 3, Pages 492-508.
Jennifer Aaker, Bernd Schmitt. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. 2001, Vol. 32, Issue 5, Pages 561-576.
Angela Lee, Jennifer Aaker, Wendi Gardner. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology. June 2000, Vol. 78, Pages 1-13.
Jennifer Aaker. Journal of Consumer Research. March 2000, Vol. 26, Issue 4, Pages 340-357.
Jennifer Aaker, Jaideep Sengupta. Journal of Consumer Psychology. 2000, Vol. 9, Issue 2, Pages 67-82.
Jennifer Aaker, Anne M. Brumbaugh, Sonya A. Grier. Journal of Conmsumer Psychology. 2000, Vol. 9, Issue 3, Pages 127-140.
Jennifer Aaker. Journal of Marketing Research. February 1999, Vol. 36, Pages 45-57.
Jennifer Aaker, Patti Williams. Journal of Consumer Research. December 1998, Vol. 25, Issue 3, Pages 241-261.
Jennifer Aaker, Duraiaraj Maheswaran. Journal of Consumer Research. December 1997, Vol. 24, Issue 3, Pages 315-328.
Jennifer Aaker. Journal of Marketing Research. August 1997, Vol. 34, Pages 347-356.


Jennifer Aaker, Naomi Joanne Bagdonas Currency, February 2021.


Degree Courses


Artificial Intelligence (AI) has the potential to drive us towards a better future for all of humanity, but it also comes with significant risks and challenges. At its best, AI can help humans mitigate climate change, diagnose and treat diseases...

YOU, oh fearless leader of the future (and maybe present). Are very important.You will make critical and far-reaching economic, political, and social decisions in your quest beyond Stanford to change lives, change organizations, and change the...


Overview: This is a multi-disciplinary cross-listed course focused on the goal of helping to build AI technology that promotes human flourishing. This course aims to expose (a) GSB students to deep learning and AI techniques focused on human well...

YOU, oh fearless leader of the future (and maybe present). Are very important.You will make critical and far-reaching economic, political, and social decisions in your quest beyond Stanford to change lives, change organizations, and change the...

We assume happiness is stable, an endpoint to achieve our goal to chase. It's not. Recent behavioral research suggests that the meaning of happiness changes every 5-10 years, raising the question: how might we build organizations and lives that...

Executive Education & Other Non-Degree Programs

Stanford Case Studies

Building Compassionate AI: Why Compassion Matters for Artificial Intelligence Design and Deployment | M386
Jennifer Aaker, Katie Solomon, Thomas Higginbotham, Zoe Weinberg2020
Designing AI for All: A Primer on Bias in Artificial Intelligence Systems | ETH23
Jennifer Aaker, Fei Fei Li, Thomas Higginbotham, Zoe Weinberg, Wendy De La Rosa2020
Designing AI for Human Connection in Online Learning | ETH29
Cooper Raterink, Daniel Kharitinov, Zoe Weinberg, Jennifer Aaker2020
Frameworks for Designing Artificial Intelligence | ETH21
Jennifer Aaker, Fei Fei Li, Thomas Higginbotham, Zoe Weinberg, Wendy De La Rosa2020
Human-Centered Artificial Intelligence and Workforce Displacement | ETH22
Jennifer Aaker, Fei Fei Li, Thomas Higginbotham, Zoe Weinberg, Wendy De La Rosa2020
Redefining Goals for Artificial Intelligence | ETH24
Jennifer Aaker, Fei Fei Li, Thomas Higginbotham, Zoe Weinberg, Wendy De La Rosa2020
The Customer in the Story: No Mothers Day | M388
JenniferAaker, Maile Lesica, Vinamarta Singal, Christy Turlington Burns2020
Wildflower Schools: Enabling Connectedness | M383
Jennifer Aaker, Blake Kavanaugh2020
Zoom: Cultivating Human Connection in a Digital World | M387
Jennifer Aaker, Susannah Shattuck2020
Stephen Curry and SC30: Aligned Purpose, Amplified Impact | M380
Jennifer Aaker; Naomi Bagdonas, Tom Bedecarré, Blake Kavanaugh2020
How to Cultivate Purpose (and Autonomy, Collaboration, and Excellence) in Companies | M377
Sophia Pink, Sara Gaviser Leslie, Jake Poses, Debra Schifrin, Jennifer Aaker2019
Institutionalizing Levity at Coursera | M378
Jennifer Aaker, Naomi Bagdonas, Jeffrey Conn2019
Play, Where the Real Work Happens: Virgin Unite | M382
Jennifer Aaker, Naomi Bagdonas, Jeffrey Conn, Jean Oelwang, Greg Rose2019
You Get the Leadership You Inspire: Humor at Google with Eric Schmidt | M381
Jennifer Aaker, Naomi Bagdonas, Jeffrey Conn, Matthew Saucedo2019
Bigger Than Bullsh*t: Brian Fugere (Deloitte) | M370B
Jennifer Aaker, Naomi Bagdonas, Peter Seibert2018
Designing Physical Space to Activate a Mindset of Levity: Gregg Spiridellis (JibJab) | M371-2
Peter Seibert, Sophia Pink, Jennifer Aaker, Naomi Bagdonas2018
Humor Saves America: Jenn Bane (Cards Against Humanity) | M371-1
Peter Seibert, Naomi Bagdonas, Jennifer Aaker2018
Igniting Positive Action in Dark Times with Humor: Eric Gurian (Stand for Rights) | M370C
Jennifer Aaker, Naomi Bagdonas, Peter Seibert, Eric Gurian2018
Leading with Humor: Leslie Blodgett (BareMinerals), David Hornik (August Capital), Anne Libera and Kelly Leonard (The Second City) | M367
Debra Schifrin, Jennifer Aaker, Naomi Bagdonas, Leslie Blodgett, David Hornik, Kelly Leonard, Anne Libera2018
Mary Roach: Finding Levity in Heavy Subjects | M375
Paricha Duangtaweesub, Naomi Bagdonas, Jennifer Aaker2018
Mike Nemeth: Niche Humor and Six-Word Stories | M376
Scott Katalenich, Naomi Bagdonas, Jennifer Aaker2018
On Humor and Honey Badgers: Steve Reardon (Bill4Time) | M373
Jennifer Aaker, Naomi Bagdonas, Steve Reardon2018
The Power of Humor in the Olympic Journey | M374
Jordan Raney, Wendy Reicher, Vanessa Lide, Naomi Bagdonas, Jennifer Aaker 2018
Using Humor to Break the Status Barrier with Dick Costolo | M371-3
Peter Seibert, Sophia Pink, Naomi Bagdonas, Jennifer Aaker2018
Using Humor to Launch a Company: Sara Blakely (SPANX) | M370A
Jennifer Aaker, Naomi Bagdonas, Peter Seibert, Sara Blakely2018
Bare Escentuals: Designing Story in a Digital World - The Innovation Playbook | M350
Jennifer Aaker, Stephany Yong, Jessica Dodson2016
eBay: Designing Culture Change - The Innovation Playbook | M364
Jennifer Aaker, Stephany Yong, Jessica Dodson, Tina Sharkey, Dane Howard2016
The Innovation Playbook: Land's End: Envisioning the Non-Obvious | M365
Jennifer Aaker, Debra Schifrin2016
How Stories Drive Growth: Brit + Co. | M348C
Jennifer Aaker, Debra Schifrin2014
How Stories Drive Growth: HSN | M348B
Jennifer Aaker, Debra Schifrin2014
How Stories Drive Growth: Skype | M348A
Jennifer Aaker, Debra Schifrin2014
How to Cultivate Happiness in Companies Five Caselets | M346
Jennifer Aaker, Jake Poses, Debra Schifrin2013
BabyCenter Creating a Social Brand | M341
Jennifer Aaker, Debra Schifrin2012
How to Harness Stories in Business | M354
Jennifer Aaker, Maile Lesica, Barbara McCarthy, Tina Sharkey, Tamsin Smith2012
JetBlue Creating a Social Brand | M343
Jennifer L Aaker, Debra Schifrin2012
The Business Case for Happiness | M345
Jennifer Aaker, Sara Gaviser Leslie, Debra Schifrin2012
Alex's Lemonade Stand Foundation: Eradicating Cancer, One Cup at a Time | M331
Jennifer Aaker, Heidy Kwan, Sara Leslie2010
Amplifying Perceptions How JetBlue Uses Twitter to Drive Engagement and Satisfaction | M336
Jennifer Aaker, David Hoyt, Sara Leslie, David Rogier2010
Bonobos: Customer Intimacy Through Community Development | M337
Jennifer Aaker, Sara Leslie2010
Deals @Delloutlet: How Dell Clears Inventory Through Twitter | M334
Jennifer Aaker, Ravdeep Chawla, Sara Leslie2010
Dispensing Happiness: How Coke Harnesses Video to Spread Happiness | M335
Jennifer Aaker, Sara Leslie, David Rogier2010
NIKE WE: Design Meets Social Good | M328
Jennifer Aaker, Ravdeep Chawla, Sara Leslie2010
NIKE WE: Design Meets Social Good | M328B
Jennifer Aaker, Sara Leslie2010
The Psychology of Happiness | M330
Jennifer Aaker, Sara Leslie, Carole Robin2010
Zappos: Happiness in a Box | M333
Jennifer Aaker, Sara Leslie2010 and the Power of a Story | M325
Jennifer Aaker, Victoria Chang2010
How To Tell A Story (A) | M323A
Jennifer Aaker, Victoria Chang2009
How To Tell A Story (B) | M323B
Jennifer Aaker, Victoria Chang2009
Obama and the Power of Social Media and Technology | M321CV
Jennifer Aaker, Victoria Chang2009
Obama and the Power of Social Media and Technology | M321
Jennifer Aaker, Victoria Chang2009
Using Social Media to Save Lives: | M319
Jennifer Aaker, Victoria Chang, Robert Chatwani2009

Stanford University Affiliations

Stanford GSB

In the Media

Poets & Quants, January 1, 2019
Gentry Magazine, September 2017
NewCo Shift, March 16, 2017
New York Magazine, December 30, 2016
Brand Quarterly, May 2016
The New York Times, March 6, 2015
Science of Us, February 25, 2015
ORSM Discovery, February 6, 2015
New research by Ioannis Evangelidis of Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University (RSM) and co-authors Jordan Etkin (Duke University) and Jennifer Aaker (Stanford University), shows interfering goals make customers feel time-constraint.
The Atlantic, November 2, 2014
Why, throughout human history, have people been so drawn to fiction?
Scientific American, October 28, 2014
ScienceDaily, April 15, 2014
The Times of India, March 27, 2014
Scientific American, February 18, 2014
Integral Options Cafe, November 21, 2013
The Atlantic, December 18, 2013
The York Times, November 30, 2013
Huffington Post, October 29, 2013
Re-evaluating how you spend time could make you happier
Chicago Tribune, September 2013
The New York Times, August 8, 2013
Fast Company, January 10, 2013
The Atlantic, January 9, 2013
Yahoo! Finance, November 18, 2012
The Dragonfly Effect
Stanford Business Magazine, November 2012
Social Media New Technology
Stanford Business Insider, October 2012
Business Wire, July 18, 2012
Forbes India, July 28, 2011
Forbes, February 8, 2010
Financial Times, February 5, 2010
Scientific American, January 26, 2010
Wall Street Journal, March 24, 2009

Insights by Stanford Business

December 11, 2020
Cozy up and listen up to our top episodes from 2020.
November 19, 2020
We’ve gathered together the most memorable articles, interviews, podcasts, and videos from a year of world-changing events.
August 13, 2020
Stanford business professors share what they’re reading at home right now.
July 31, 2020
In the months since his company became a global verb, Zoom CEO Eric Yuan has never been busier. Or more exhausted. Or happier.
June 29, 2020
Mitigate the psychological trauma wrought by COVID-19 by making meaning out of tragedy.
June 22, 2020
In this podcast episode, we dissect how to use humor to build bonds in business and in life.
December 6, 2019
Stanford GSB professors recommend the books they’re most likely to give as presents over this year’s holiday season.
August 30, 2019
To sustain the behaviors that helped you reach a goal, think about the achievement as a journey rather than a destination.
December 5, 2017
15 Stanford business professors recommend books for those long winter nights.
December 4, 2017
Readers keyed into humor’s workplace value, the secret to improving communication skills, and advice from Sheryl Sandberg and Marc Andreessen.
October 20, 2017
Stanford GSB faculty and industry leaders help young executives of search fund companies navigate their new roles.
August 31, 2017
Using the right language during crises improves patients’ chances of recovery.
August 21, 2017
Stanford GSB professors suggest a reading list of articles and books related to the concept.
July 11, 2017
You are not as funny as you should be, and your company is suffering because of it.
December 15, 2016
Faculty and guest speakers on topics ranging from storytelling to simplicity.
December 12, 2016
Long commute? Spend the time listening to these 10 Stanford Business stories.
May 16, 2016
Businesses can touch customers and clarify corporate values by creating a powerful narrative.
January 6, 2016
People work harder if they feel that what they are doing has meaning.
December 16, 2015
Humor can get you through long lines at Disneyland and a bad day at work.
December 10, 2015
Why product designers should put themselves in the shoes of their consumers.
December 17, 2014
Feeling torn between conflicting goals makes people less inclined to fulfill either one.
December 11, 2014
Explore 10 Stanford Business stories from 2014, including pieces on happiness and networking.
October 27, 2014
As people grow older, their definition of happiness tends to shift from excitement to contentment.
July 11, 2014
New research shows one big reason to be nice to others.
May 29, 2014
A new study shows that people who feel powerful save more money.
February 27, 2014
Dale Miller brings the expertise and experience of Stanford GSB faculty and alumni to consider the question, “Is nonprofit passé or overlooked?”
February 27, 2014
Professor Frank Flynn looks at the difference between “happiness” and “meaning” in life –– and how these two concepts relate to being prosocial.
July 3, 2013
A Stanford GSB professor of marketing explains why engaging your audience is key to success.
July 13, 2012
New research shows that experiencing moments of awe can change perceptions of our most valued commodity.
July 9, 2012
Research shows that the little word 'we' can make a big difference in attitudes toward brands.
November 15, 2011
Research shows that “attitudes toward happiness are highly malleable, and, in fact, easily influenced.”
April 1, 2011
Forget Suze Orman. Time, not money, is your most precious resource. Spend it wisely.
October 1, 2010
The Zappos CEO says that doing whatever it takes to keep his employees, customers, and vendors happy has led to profits in the end.
March 6, 2010
The Center for Social Innovation conference showcased how to use gentle nudges, subtle tweaks, and quiet prompts to summon better behavior.
February 1, 2010
How small acts can create big change.
February 1, 2010
How we perceive for-profit and not-for-profit organizations can affect how both groups do business.
August 1, 2009
A study looks at the relationship between self-image and charitable giving.
March 1, 2009
Why many effective consumer marketing campaigns focus on experiencing, rather than possessing, a product.
September 1, 2008
A new study shows that asking potential donors to make an emotional connection first can ultimately lead to greater financial giving.
September 1, 2007
A strong brand personality can help nonprofits attract more support for their mission.
June 1, 2007
Research examines how feelings of time change your perceptions.
November 1, 2005
Research explores the circumstances under which culture influences consumer-purchasing decisions.
March 1, 2003
Brand personality has a significant impact on customer relationships, and the ability of a brand to recover from errors.

School News

March 25, 2020
Though concerns over COVID-19 forced the cancellation Me2We on-campus, participants brought the same enthusiasm and excitement, virtually.
March 6, 2020
Margaret Neale helped shape Stanford GSB’s curriculum, championed diversity and mentorship, and transformed the fields of negotiations and team performance.
September 28, 2017
Gentry Magazine learns how Stanford Professor Jennifer Aaker and Lecturer Naomi Bagdonas, MBA ’15 are bringing humor to the classroom and business world.